Diabetes Melitus (DM) is one of chronic diseases that commonly attack people. Basic Health Research Data 2013 indicated that about 6.9 percent of Indonesia's population suffer from a disease characterized by increased levels of sugar in the blood.
dr. R.Bowo Pramono, Sp.PD. KEMD(K), internal diseases lecturer in Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, said that Indonesia ranked fourth in the world by the number of diabetes case after India, China, and the United States. This fact shows the tendency of diabetes case to grow year by year, especially DM type 2.
"WHO estimates the number of people with type 2 DM in Indonesia will increase significantly to reach 21.3 million people by the year of 2030." he added, Friday (11/13), at the Internal Medicine department of Dr. Sardjito general hospital.
He explains that there are four types of diabetes that affect humans. First, type 1 diabetes that occurs due to damage to the beta cells of the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency that causes insulin dependence. This type usually occurs in children due to an auto-immune problem. Second, type 2 diabetes which do not create dependency on insulin. It usually occurs in adults due to obesity and unhealthy lifestyles.
Next, another type of diabetes that occurs due to infection of the pancreas, tumor, immunology, and other genetic syndromes associated with diabetes. It is also caused by drugs and chemicals that contain corticosteroids which are commonly given to patients with lupus, asthma, and kidney disorders. Then gestational diabetes, the diabetes was first diagnosed during pregnancy. After giving birth, the condition will return to normal condition, but it could also get worse if not treated well.
A person can be at risk of diabetes because they have a family history of diabetes. In addition, a person with hypertension, cholesterol disorders, and obesity are very prone to the disease.
"The disease also haunts people aged over 45 years due to exhaustion of the pancreas," said Bowo, a member of working group Pituitary Endocrinology Association of Indonesia (PERKENI).
So what kinds of symptoms of diabetes that people should be aware of? Bowo explained that a person with diabetes often has frequent urination, dispropotionate thirst, intense hunger and weight loss with unknown reasons.
To reduce the risk of developing diabetes, Bowo called on the public to pay more attention to health. This can be done by changing lifestyles to become healthier, adjusting meals, maintaining a balanced composition of nutrients, and exercising at least 30 minutes per day.
"Do not forget to regularly do the check up," he added ahead of the World Diabetes Day on 14 November.
Bowo stressed the importance of early diagnoses of diabetes to reduce the risk of this dangerous disease. Because the majority of patients who come to the hospital were already in a complications state.
"Patients who come to the hospital here have had complications already, because many of them did not realize that they have diabetes," he said.
According to Bowo, the most important thing right now is the secondary prevention for diabetic patients to prevent acute complications. DM cases that are not well treated will lead to chronic complications, such as stroke, peripheral nervous disorders, heart attack, blurred vision, and leg amputation. Likewise, tertiary prevention is important so that diabetic people who have complications do not have to become deformed, undergo amputation, or even death.
"Prevention can be successful if people with diabetes get the right treatment on both primary and advanced health care levels," he said.
The treatment of diabetes, Bowo adds, should be done thoroughly and with a good cooperation between physicians, nurses, dietitians, patients, family, and community. The DM management has a number of important components that can not be separated from one another and must be implemented simultaneously.
"(It is better to have) Education of healthy lifestyle in society, exercise, diet, pharmacological therapy, and monitors blood sugar levels regularly," he explained. (Humas UGM/Adel)