Development gap among regions of Indonesia is caused not just by failed implementations but more by development paradigm and concept that are orientated towards economic growth with the bases of investment and technology improvement. Such concept creates new problems in the exploitation of natural resources and environmental degradation. Therefore, the commitment of the central and regional governments to implement sustainable development has to be applied to minimise poverty level, socio-economic gap, and gap between regions. This was said by Geography lecturer of UGM, Dr. Luthfi Muta’ali ,M.T., in a scientific speech entitled Enhancement of Regional Sustainble Development in Indonesia during the celebration of 54th anniversary of Faculty of Geography UGM on Monday (4/8) in the Merapi Auditorium of the Faculty.
Development gap, said Luthfi, happened between Java and outside, West and East regions, and urban and rural areas. National Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2016 recorded 80.34% of the economy was centred on Java and Sumatera while provinces such as Aceh, South Sumatera, Riau, most of Kalimantan and Papua were highest contributors of revenues due to their abundant resources. But they are economically left behind. “It’s a fact that degradation of natural resources and environment quality are even more unfortunate,” he said.
In addition, new fiscal policy of profit sharing for such regions can not still resolve poverty issue and gaps. An approach is thus required to integrate systems between regions, both rural-urban areas and regional gap. The systemic regional gap, said Luthfi, had sparked the government to do spatial revolution by moving the capital of Indonesia elsewhere.
Regional development paradigm requires fourth important aspects, which are to achieve growth, equality, welfare, and balanced sustainablity. Among the four aspects, sustainability becomes the foundation of regional development that also becomes the long goal. “What’s no less important is increase in human resource capacity as implementer of sustainable development,” he said.
UGM Vice-Rector for Education, Learning and Student Affairs, Prof. Dr. Ir. Djagal Wiseso Marseno,M.Agr., who is also former Strategic Studies Deputy Head of National Resilience Institute, said there were eight elements in national defence system, namely geographical place and position, natural resources, population capacities, ideological, political, economic, social, cultural, defence and security elements. He said in the few past years geographical element had decreased as it was influenced by ideological, social and cultural elements. “In the past six years, these two elements were less resilient. These also affected political life and natural resource management,” said Djagal.
The geographical element, said Djagal, was related to development of land use, environmental supporting capacities, territorial borders, land slopes, facilities and infrastructure, and the sea route of Indonesian archipelago.