In simple terms, competence can be divided into two. The first is called general competency (soft competency), which is associated with motivation, nature, and a person's self-concept and the values he believes. The second is special competence (hard competency) which consists of knowledge and skills.
Study on competence and performance have been done before, which strengthens the description of competence’s significant influence on performance. However, based on empirical experience of Endang Suraningsih, S. Psi., MM as administrator and assessor in the assessment center of State Owned Enterprises for Plantation and Big Private Plantation (PBS) in Indonesia for 20 years, such view does not always apply. She concluded that competence does not always positively correlate to performance significantly. "It certainly stirs allegations, besides competency variable that affects performance, there are other variables that directly and indirectly affect performance," she said on Tuesday (9/11), conducting an open examination of UGM Psychology Doctoral Program.
Based on the study and review of references, Endang managed to find some other variables that affect performance, such as leadership variable that she chose as an additional variable in her research. In connection with this performance, there are four meta-analyses of military literature, and psychology organizations have revealed the relationship between transformational leadership with stronger and positive performance compared to transactional leadership style and leadership of omission.
Meanwhile, specifically transformational leadership correlates with effectiveness, transactional leadership and passive leadership style. "Both types of correlation together form what is referred to as 'a full range of leadership'," she said.
The research she did for three years (2006-2008) in PT Perkebunan Nusantara III (Persero) in the region of North Sumatra with 400 respondents of leadership employees of strata IV-VI (equal to first line, middle, and top managers) in units production concluded that general competence directly affects the performance while the level of influence varies in each stratum. Management of general competence should be tailored according to the title strata. Meanwhile, perception of leadership behavior directly affects the performance. Perceptions of transformational leadership behaviors increase the impact of transactional leadership effects on performance. "Perception on transformational leadership behavior has directly increased the influence of general competence on performance," the lady born in Surakarta, April 19, 1968, explained.
In her dissertation entitled The Influence of General Competency and Leadership on Manager Performance in State Owned Plantation Endang recommended that implementation of the result of this research is the importance of transformational leadership development that can enhance the effect of transactional leadership in the development of general competence of managers in companies. This implementation needs to be emphasized because the contribution of influence of general competence is significant to the performance of managers, which is eventually accumulated at the company's performance. "That the general competence management and development of leadership style should also be adjusted with title strata," said Endang who passed with very satisfying distinction and became the 1303rd doctor of UGM.