Prof. dr. Moh. Hakimi, Sp.OG (K)., Ph.D., as the UGM Professor of the Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, revealed the difference between vaccines' efficacy and effectiveness.
He explained that efficacy or usability was the results test beneath ideal conditions supported by all controlled-factors. On the other hand, effectiveness can appear through the vaccination program applied in real conditions in the community. Hence, the number of vaccine's effectiveness seemed to have to be lower than the efficacy.
"In clinical trials regarding the vaccine, the vaccine was in the precise dose, secured storage, and there was also control from patient's compliance so that the conditions are ideal. It goes different if it has become a vaccination program. Suppose the vaccine is distributed to the health center, for instance, and accidentally it is not in accordance with standard administration. In that case, there will be a reduction in the results," he explained on Wednesday (20/1).
He further revealed that we could measure the efficacy through the number of the group that was not vaccinated minus the number of vaccinated groups. Then the result is next divided by the incidence rate of those who were not vaccinated.
"So, the frequency of those who are not vaccinated is used as a comparison as well as as a reference category," he added.
He revealed this in the UGM CBMH FK-KMK Raboan Online event, which discussed the theme entitled "Covid-19 Vaccine: Ethics and Infectious Disease''. He demonstrated the health belief model that asserted the involvement of factors influencing a person's willingness in health promotion activities. They are the seriousness perceptions of their problems, perceptions of vulnerability, perceptions of benefits and obstacles, and perceptions of threats.
Modified variables consisting of demographic variables such as social class, gender, age, and psychological characteristics such as personality and peer group pressure also influence a person's willingness in health promotion activities.
There is one of the important strategies to do regarding the vaccination program, namely demonstrating the seriousness of Covid-19 and its impact and the vaccination's benefits value.
"People won't hesitate to be vaccinated if they can see the valuable benefits from the vaccination program," said Hakimi.
He added that currently, a lot of fake or hoax information is circulating that could likely affect public perceptions if there are no immediate careful responses. Accordingly, there should be a responsive correction on any misinformation that appeared.
In this regard, he delivered a presentation related to infectious disease bioethics. In clinical medical practice, patients are perceived as victims. Otherwise, according to infectious diseases, patients are not only victims, but they are also vectors that can possibly transmit the virus to other people.
"So, there is a moral obligation for patients suffering from infectious diseases to others," he said.
Additionally, according to him, one thing that is necessary to do is connecting the gap between bioethics and traditional public health. More attention is needed at the practical level in the aspects of confidentiality and privacy, informed consent, and paternalism.
Translator: Natasa A