Professor of Psychology Faculty of UGM, Prof. Dr. Djamaludin Ancok, believes the study of cultural philosophy inherited from the past leadership is potential to be developed professionally in the present day. Through legitimacy, validity, and reliability tests academically, it can be used as a measuring tool for human resources development and for the selection of national leaders.
"Nowadays, a lot of measuring instruments for leadership models that have been derived from abroad is applied in the homeland. Actually, those foreign leadership models do not always fit with our cultural roots," said Djamaludin Ancok to the reporters on the sidelines of The First International Conference of Indigenous and Cultural Psychology event, at University Club UGM on Monday (26/7).
Some leadership models developed by Prabu Siliwangi between the years of 1482-1521, Ki Hadjar Dewantara in 1939, and the theory of leadership in the Asta Brata which is based on the Hindu teachings, for example, could be reviewed to be the concept of leadership models that can be applied nationally.
"Ki Hadjar Dewantara is one of the leadership doctrine sources that is frequently referred to in education and human resource development. Meanwhile, communities in West Java have the concept of Prabu Siliwangi: silih asih, silih asah, silih asuh. We are also acquainted with the theory of leadership in Asta Brata which is based on Hindu teachings. That has affected much in the mindset of our society until now," said Ancok.
Through the past leadership models discourse, Ancok said, better understanding about leadership and human resource management at companies can be obtained. The implementation of leadership according to local culture context is believed as able to improve the performance of the organization/company. "The application of appropriate management will make the company's culture more excellent. It must be based on the right understanding of human resources psychology," said the man born in Bangka, on August 18, 1946.
Ancok also criticized that the national leadership index test applied by the Lemhanas (National Resilience Institute) nowadays is still using the measuring tool of leadership models from abroad. According to Ancok, institutions such as the Lemhanas, Ministry of National Education, LIPI and other research institutions can cooperate to do applied study of national leadership model in accordance with our own national cultural characters.
Speaking before the participants from various countries, Ancok explained that the problem of leadership in Indonesia was heavily influenced by old philosophy. He said, in fact, indigenous psychology offers not only top-down factor analysis but also bottom-up. Besides Ancok, a number of experts from various countries contributed their ideas and findings related to psychology discourse from the indigenous viewpoint. Madelene Sta Maria, a psychologist from De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines, explained in the 1990s indigenous psychology had developed based on the response that the results of academia studies in the Western were not always suitable and appropriate to the context in each country. The birth of indigenous psychology study is also aimed to liberate students from the dominance of Western psychology of thinking that is free of context.
"There are many students studying Western psychology. But it is difficult to apply the science because it does not always fit. The indigenous psychology studies can help understand the relevant local context that is suitable to be applied," said Madelene.
The International Conference from July 24 to 27 will present 300 participants from 28 countries. Among them are experts from the United States, Mexico, Canada, UK, Poland, South Africa, Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, and New Zealand.