YOGYAKARTA- The alternative of war against terrorism that was expanding after the attacks of 11 September 2001 is a strategy that is not oriented to the use of violence, and therefore known as the soft-approach. One form of this strategy is known through de-radicalization programs. De-radicalization program has become a very interesting program, adopted by many countries. Although taking different forms, de-radicalization programs start from the same basic assumption, namely the existence of linkages between terrorism and terrorism radicalism originated from radicalism.
“Therefore, efforts to fight terrorism will be more effectively done through the de-radicalization. The essence is to change the perception or mindset that is considered wrong to become the normal understanding and way of thinking," said lecturer of the Department of International Relations of UGM Fisipol, Drs. Muhadi Sugiono, MA., in the Seminar of “Terrorism and radicalism, 10 years of post-September 11 attacks: Successes and Challenges” at UGM UC on Monday (28/2).
Muhadi said another strategy to combat terrorism is through the hard approach (the war against terrorism). The war against terrorism meets the emotional demands to act quickly and emphasis on punishment for the perpetrators of the attack. Unfortunately, Muhadi added, the two understanding that developed after the September 11 attacks are not built through a comprehensive and critical study, thus they are debatable.
"The war against terrorism, for example, misunderstood terrorism as a spy war. While de-radicalization tends to ignore the reality that fundamentally terrorism was not individuals who misunderstand or misinterpret the teachings," said Muhadi who is also Head of the Center for Security Studies and Peace of UGM.
From the problems associated with the understanding of terrorism that was expanding after the September 11 attacks, there was an urgent need to generate more critical and objective knowledge, not oriented to the needs of short-term policy-making or the need to respond to temporary event/phenomenon, but oriented to the development of concepts and theorization to a better understanding of terrorism.
Meanwhile Executive Director of Yayasan Prasasti Perdamaian, Noor Huda Ismail, explains that based on the various researches through visits to several countries, he saw that terrorism has nothing to do with Islam, let alone Islamic boarding school. It is that the danger of terrorism is not a fabrication, it is real.
"The threat did not come from the orders of America and its allies such are often accused by various circles," said Huda.
Thus, he thought that arrests without any repressive action on the part of the state apparatus is also very important since the arrests of terrorist suspects who tend to 'terrorize terrorists’, such as the 17 hours raid of the terrorism suspects, Boim, a former florist of Ritz Carlton hotel in Temanggung, the assassination of Dulmatin at an internet cafe in Pamulang Jakarta and also the assassination of two suspected criminal of acts of terrorism in Cawang, are a counter-productive strategy.
“In fact, among human rights activists, the actions are violating human rights. Thus, importantly for the handling of terrorism in Indonesia must be done by making the people who are considered potential of radicalism to build the country of their birth place," said Huda.
In the same place, De-radicalization Director of National Agency for Terrorism Eradication Prof.Dr.Irfan Idris, MA, mentions that there is still a challenge in eradicating terrorism, namely the terrorist network that has entered into various countries. In addition, the network of terrorism is rooted and through a systematic pattern of recruitment.
"It's still added by the weak nationhood insight, thus unable to become a strong fortress to combat terrorism," said Irfan.
Particularly, de-radicalisation, Irfan explains, the strategy that has so far been conducted, among others, includes campaign against terrorism and radical movements. In addition, it is also proposed to the education sector, including religious education and civic education’s curriculum enrichment.