From the innovation in extracts of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) fruit to block Avian Influenza (AI) H5N1 viruses, Artina Prastiwi, a student of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, was named first winner in the competition of Indonesian Society Scientists and Technology (MITI) Paper Challenge (MPC) 2011 which was held on January 29. Meanwhile, second place was achieved by the student of Airlangga University and followed by University of Indonesia in the third rank.
Artina Prastiwi, class of 2007 student, won the first place after presenting a series of researches in a scientific paper entitled Antiviral Activity Test of Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) Extract Infusion In Ovo in Inhibition of Replication of the H5N1 Virus as Pioneer of Organic Vaccine in Asia. She managed to set aside 96 other papers from all over Indonesia.
As a vet candidate, Artina said she was worried due to the spread of AI virus in Indonesia which has caused many casualties. She understands very well that people dealing directly with poultry will be susceptible to this virus. She is concerned with the breeders. Apart from suffering material losses, the life of breeders is also threatened by this deadly virus attack. Although breeders know the risk, they rarely vaccinate their poultry to counteract the AI virus. "Many breeders do not vaccinate the poultry because the price of chemical AI vaccine in the market is quite expensiveat 200 thousand rupiah for 100 doses," she said.
Observing the fact, this girl in veil attempted to find solution to solve this issue. She used the fruit of mahkota dewa, a local potential of Indonesia, which has been scientifically proven to improve endurance as AI antivirus. Saponin content in the fruit is useful not only to boost the immune system and vitality but also is used as an anti-bacteria and anti-virus.
To get the saponin compound, Artina extracted mahkota dewa fruit through distillation. The making of antivirus begins with a weighting according to the dosage required. For a dose of 10 ml, it needs 100 grams of mahkota dewa per 100 ml of water or its multiple, namely 100 grams per 1000 ml. "Furthermore, refining is done to get the extract," she told reporters on Thursday (3/3), in UGM Fortakgama Room.
After obtaining the extract, Artina tested 10 ml of saponin content in LPPT UGM. According to Artina, the extract must contain 10 percent of saponin. The resultis used as raw material, namely as a solvent for antigen suspense of AI virus. Furthermore, the material used as vaccine amounts to 0.2 ml extract of mahkota dewa.
At first, Artina said that trial was conducted on 30 embryonated chicken eggs. From the test results, it is known that in eggs which were given AI virus and an additional 10 percent of saponin extract of 0.2 ml after incubation for 35 days, no dead embryos were found, they were healthy, and without scarring. Meanwhile, in eggs which were injected a higher dose of 15 percent and 20 percent, all the embryos die with bleeding throughout the body, dwarfism, and alantois turbid fluid. "Ten percent is the best result to prevent Avian Influenza virus. This proves that the saponin concentration used should be appropriate because it can cause poisoning if given in large doses," she explained.
Once proven safe in the egg, the daughter of Sugita and Wartinah tested this in chickens younger than 21 days and the result is quite encouraging. All chickens that have been vaccinated do not die.
The girl born in Gunung Kidul, January 26, 1989 said that the vaccine she developed is proven capable of inhibiting the development of AI virus to 87 percent. Besides testing in laboratory scale proved to be able in inhibiting AI virus, the vaccine is also cheaper than chemical vaccines sold in the market. AI vaccines on the market are usually priced 200 thousand rupiah per 100 doses. Meanwhile, her vaccine is only 75 thousand rupiah per 100 doses. Although it is effective and inexpensive, this vaccine has not been mass marketed. "It needs further research to know for certain the outcome," said the alumnus of SMA 1 Wonosari.
The result of this study according to the plan will also be presented at an international seminar held by AMSTECS in Japan from March 19 to 20.