The use of Information Technology and Communication (ICT) in the fulfillment of economic services has changed the pattern of movement. This is indicated by the reduction in the distance, time, cost, frequency, and changes in movement direction. According to Rini Rachmawati, S.Si., M.T. changes in the patterns movement are caused by some of the utilization of the conventional economic banking services (bank) getting substituted by the use of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and e-banking. "So thank to the ATM, some have shorter distance route, moreover through e-banking services it looks zero because it can be conducted without performing any movement at all," she said at the UGM Faculty of Geography on Saturday (19/3), when conducting her open examination of the doctoral program of Geography.
The changes in the pattern of movement, according to Rini, also occurred in the utilization of ICT in retail fields related to spending activity. By utilizing the ICT, e-shopping, for activities of purchase/ordering of goods, many people no longer have to conduct the physical movement in accessing retail services, such as shops, supermarkets, and malls. "Thus, the existence of e-banking and e-shopping has reduced the frequency of movement. This can be seen from the reduction in movement toward the bank and retail," said professor of Regional Development Study Program, Department of Geographic Information Science and Regional Development, UGM Faculty of Geography.
Rini assesses the reduction of movement’s time is due to the reduction in movement‘s distance as well as cost. Even so, the cost reduction factor received less attention than the reasons of efficiency and safety of travel. The direction of movement is no longer always focused on conventional economic banking service in center or in the city. "Some have been replaced by ICT-based banking service that are oriented to locations closest to the residence or workplaces," the lady who was born in Purworejo, December 15, 1969, explained.
In the dissertation, "Changes in Spatial Patterns of Population Movement and Economic Services Location that are substituted by the Information and Communication Technology (Case Study of Yogyakarta Urban)", Rini Rachmawati reveals decentralization of economic banking services through ATM service is much more visible than retail. Retail services are more pointed to the phenomenon of urban sprawl, which is the growth of the city which bubbles out of the suburbs. The sprawl is indicated by the presence of shopping malls and similar places of business in the downtown. "In the city of Yogyakarta, the development of retail in the suburbs is more likely to follow the development of settlements in the area," said Rini in front of the examiners.
From the results of her research, Rini pointed out that it is the time for the fields of Information and Communication Technology to become the factor to consider in determining the location, whether it’s for the offices, business premises, or residential place. However, the field of ICT in the future will grow rapidly, hence, its utilization gives the more strengthening tendency of decentralized locations. "So the location of economic services and social services needs not necessarily in the center of the city, but also in the outskirt of the city because of the presence of ICT-based services. As such, residents do not always have to go downtown, but they can access from various locations with the support of ICT," she explained.