YOGYAKARTA- Migration (movement) of population from a place/country to another place from time to time continues to change. The pattern of migration is not limited to demographic factor alone, but also economy, politics, conflict up to climate change.
This was delivered by Dr. Rainer Munz (demographer), who is currently Head of Research and Development at Erste Bank, Vienna, Austria, in the discussion at Center for Population and Policy Studies of UGM on Thursday (14/4). Munz explained about Global Migration Pattern. The event was opened by Head of the Center, Prof. Dr. Muhadjir Muhammad Darwin, MPA.
"Although it is not direct, but the factor of climate change also affects the migration of a nation," Munz said.
Munz exemplified the migration that occurred in the 20th century in several countries in conflicts such as India, Bangladesh, Israel, Palestine, China and Taiwan. Meanwhile, in the late 20th century, migration due to ethnic conflict also happened in Bosnia, Sudan, Congo, etc.
"It has been seen and becomes world’s characteristic that there is change of migration pattern in the world in the late 20th century," Munz added, who also serves as a Senior Fellow at the Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
In addition, education and labor factors are also discussed in the discussion. Munz assessed the current global migration characteristics show the trend such as an aging population as well as falling fertility rate (births). "It is uneven, as in Indonesia and India which still have rising birth rates," he added.
In the discussion, Munz also discussed the difference of migration policy in the U.S. with Europe. In his opinion, the U.S. has more open thoughts related to migration. Unlike Europe which tends to impose stricter migration policy. This is due to the 'native' Europeans who assess migration will only burden state finances. It is almost the same as what happens in Arabia which also applies very strict migration policy.
One interesting thing revealed by Munz is that India sends many migrant workers abroad, even to change their citizenship. There they learn and develop skills (science) to be developed later in their country after returning home. This cannot be done in Indonesia because it is not allowed to have dual nationalities here.
"Maybe this is a barrier to the development of science and technology in Indonesia because it is not allowed to have dual nationalities," Munz said.
Previously, in that discussion Munz also explained about changes in migration pattern in the period of tens of millions of years ago. At that time, migrations happened from Africa to Asia, Alaska, etc. Then there is a change of migration pattern from Europe to Asia. Change in migration pattern is not separated from the factor of educational development, industrial revolution, and transportation.