YOGYAKARTA – Semarang city now experiences de-industrialization as the impact of excessive urbanization where the urbanization rate is not balanced by industrialization. In fact, the urban population density of Semarang has also led to lower environmental supporting capacity and social capacity. This was delivered by lecturer of Civil Engineering, State University of Semarang, Ir. Saratri Wilonoyudho, M.Sc., in his open doctoral examination of Demographic Science of UGM Graduate School in the auditorium of Faculty of Geography, Saturday (19/11).
In his dissertation entitled Determinants and Impact of Excessive Urbanization in Semarang City, Saratri emphasized that in Semarang there is tendency of urbanization with spreading pattern, marked by the high urban population growth in districts around Semarang city. In addition, impacts on environmental degradation, traffic jam and high rates of crime, the role of industrial and agricultural sectors in Semarang tend to decrease, while the informal sector actually increases. "Urbanization in Semarang city creates city involution phenomenon with increasing number of workers in the informal sector with low productivity, as shown in the GDP (gross regional domestic product) in the industrial sector of Semarang city, which is relatively small compared to GDP in the service sector or trade," he said.
He mentioned, the flow of migration into Semarang is seen from 25-29 to 35-39 age groups, both men and women, that rised quite sharply. In 1997, the age group of 25-29 in men population was approximately 56,409 and 57,827 female population, ten years later or in 2007, the number jumped sharply, i.e 78,093 for men and 77 228 for women. Most (81.9%) of them worked in informal sector or service. Only 18.09% worked in the industrial sector.
As a result of the impact of excessive urbanization, he said, the government of Semarang has overloaded budget because they have to finance infrastructure and social services at a high cost that is not comparable with the productivity of most of its citizens who work in the informal sector. However, he added, Semarang city still has a chance to redesign urban planning because the city has not been as overpopulated as Jakarta due to quite broad open space in this city. "Policy to reduce migration flows should be done well simultaneously through development policy at national and regional levels, as well as between rural and urban areas," he said.
According to Saratri, policy of capital-intensive industry centers development needs to be reviewed, small and medium industries based on agriculture need to be developed so that farmers and farm workers also enjoy the results. This demand is put forward because the results of this study indicate that farm workers, farmers and unskilled workers have very small income. This strategy of using the city should be directed to further clarify the city’s hierarchy to avoid the spreading domination of Semarang city on the areas behind it and more results of development are expected to be disseminated.
Chairman of the examiner team, Prof. Dr. Hartono, DEA., DESS., said that Saratri graduated cum laude, becoming the 1512nd doctor from UGM. His promoter was Prof. Dr. Yeremias T. Keban, MURP., and co-promoters Prof. Ir. Bakti Setiwan, MA., Ph.D., and Prof. Dr. R. Rijanta, M.Sc.