YOGYAKARTA - From international point of view, Indonesia has not done much to demonstrate its seriousness in the global struggle against corruption. Indonesia has ratified the UNCAC by Act No.7 of 2006, but there is no follow-up from the Government against the report of StAR (the Stolen Asset Recovery) Initiative, the result of collaboration between the World Bank and the Office on Drugs and Crime under United Nations, which is established to complete the provisions of UNCAC. The report put the former president Suharto at the top of the list of corrupt world leaders; he allegedly abused state assets as much as 15-35 billion dollars.
"It is a fantastic value for a country with average annual GDP (Gross Domestic Product) as much as 86.6 billion dollars," Dr. Nur Rachmat Yuliantoro, the researcher of Institute of International Studies (IIS) of UGM Faculty of Social and Political Sciences explained at the Seminar 'The Importance of Diplomacy and Foreign Policy in Combating Corruption', Tuesday (13/12) at UC UGM.
Rachmat Yuliantoro added that previous edition of TIME magazine's May 24, 1999 reported that Suharto and his family had a very large sums of money in some foreign bank accounts, as well as shares and property worth 15 billion dollars. Suharto balked at this, even brought an action against TIME on the basis of defamation.
"We do not find seriousness of those in authority, including Indonesian anti-corruption agency officials and diplomats, to explore whether these two reports were valid or not," Rachmat who is also lecturer at Department of International Relations UGM said.
He asserted that corruption has become a culture that is very difficult to eradicate from Indonesia. The public seems pessimistic with this condition, neither it is easy for diplomats (and Indonesian students abroad) to convey to the international community about Indonesia’s “success” in combating corruption. In Indonesia, Rachmat continued, image as one of the most corrupting countries in the world seems to justify the assessment that the role of foreign policy and diplomacy in combating corruption is more visible as a façade or illusion, especially in cases where corruption cannot be separated from the opposing political interests and potentially weaken the nation-building.
Meanwhile, Head of Law and Transnational Crime and Extradition Section in Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indra Rosandry, explained the role of the Ministry in delivering and receiving requests for Mutual Legal Assistance as well as extradition. Indra also pointed out the existence of several obstacles in enforcing this Ministry’s role. The constraint of which is the extradition process which is a judicial process that gives the right of suspects/convicted person to appeal until the final level.
"This can make extradition process longer," Indra said.
At the same place, Mu'adz D'Fahmi, Functional Specialist of International Cooperation of Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), explained some of the success of corruption cases handling by the KPK and refund money/assets to the country that reached around 2.67 trillion rupiah (in 2010). In addtition to international cooperation that has been done either bilaterally or multilaterally, KPK has signed 22 bilateral MoUs with foreign institutions.
"Besides, KPK has also actively participated in more than 30 multilateral forums, such as G20 WGAC, UNCAC, as well as ICPO-Interpol," Mu'adz said.
Mu'adz asserted in the context of the crime beyond the boundaries of state (transnationalized crime) law enforcement must be trans-national. Moreover, because the domestic law enforcement has no authority in a foreign jurisdiction, the international cooperation is absolutely a must.
"The main capitals of international cooperation among law enforcement agencies are of mutual trust, good relationship, communication, and reciprocity," he concluded.