Given the increasing risks of global warming, climate change and
globalization, the livelihood approach in rural development will become
stronger in the future, because, contextually, the issues in rural
households need to be addressed using livelihood approach as described
above. Various risks and vulnerabilities that are derived from a variety
of global changes can emerge at any time as a disaster or shock in
scales ranging from local to broad and massive scale.
In such chaotic situations, according to Rijanto, governments as
authorities are often not effective, because members of the government
often become victims themselves. "Therefore, society's collective
consciousness about the risks needs to be raised through education and
local community participation. Their various roles need to be
accommodated in facing those changes, particularly in terms of rural
development that is more sensitive to a variety of risks and
vulnerabilities," said the husband of Emi Rusdiyati, and the father of
He said global warming and climate change have together increased the risk of production activities in rural areas, crop failures, emergence of new diseases and disasters that have never happened before. "Similarly, globalization has put the villagers in a situation that is more open to new vulnerabilities and risks that arise from the openness and integration of the rural system in the order of social systems, economy and global politics," said the man born in Kulon Progo, on January 1, 1962.