Climate change is a global issue and has become a chronic problem. The character of climate change impact is the change in global average temperatures, change in precipitation/rainfall, sea levels and temperatures rise and other extreme events, such as cyclone, tornado, and floods.
The impact of climate change on aquaculture can directly alter the physiology, behavior and growth, reproductive ability, dead fish, as well as productivity. Indirectly, climate change can alter the aquatic ecosystem as a place to live, stock and supply of fish, as well as goods and services required in aquaculture.
To reduce the vulnerability of aquaculture from impacts of climate change, adaptation and mitigation are really needed. "Adaptation and mitigation at the appropriate scale at the level of individual, family, government institutions, both local, national and global, (are needed) to establish management plans in the short, medium, and long term," said Professor of the UGM Department of Fisheries Faculty of Agriculture, Prof. Dr. Ir. Rustadi, M.Sc., while delivering presentation at the VIII Annual National Seminar on Marine and Fisheries Research at the Auditorium of Faculty of Agriculture, Saturday (16/7).
Rustadi added that the handling of the climate change impact is basically to ensure food security and sustainable development. While the negative issues in aquaculture also need to be addressed, including the release and genetic changes in wild fish stocks, the conversion of mangrove forest area, waste that lowers the quality of water environments, parasites and disease outbreaks, the residue material as well as bio-security (biological safety). "That way, sustainable aquaculture should prioritize, among others, the aquaculture with appropriate supporting capacity and the development of integrated breeding systems," he said.
On the occasion, Rustadi also said long-term growth of aquaculture industry requires activity management practices that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. He considered many of the farmers/entrepreneurs in recent years have adopted the practice of carefulness, especially regarding the environment. However, in poor or developing countries the practice of the policy is still not possible economically, socially, and politically.
Meanwhile, Chief of Research and Development of Marine and Fisheries, Dr. Ir. Endhay Kusnendar, M.S, in the event recognized the presence of unfavorable image of traditional aquaculture products, because in the processing it has low levels of sanitation and hygiene, low quality and freshness of raw materials, unguaranteed security, hereditary technology, and inadequate management skills. Therefore, the product is facilitated to improve the image and make it more widely known. "This could be done, for example, with the pattern OVOP, to create sensory images of products, better packaging, associated with tourism activities," said Endhay.
Moreover, so far in the development of aquaculture products there are still several problems found, among others, availability of raw material in quality and quantity, the high diversity of resources, and the limited number of fishery processing industry that has a team of product development.