YOGYAKARTA – Indonesia has come to the end of first demographic transition with the total fertility figure almost 2 and low mortality rate. The second demographic transition would be marked by sexual and reproduction revolution that would become a complicated issue for Indonesia as it is unstoppable. The thing to do is to prevent its negative impact. Thus was said by a reprodution health expert from Faculty of Medicine, Prof. dr. Siswanto Agus Wilopo, SU., M.Sc., Ph,D., in his professorship remarks in the Senate Hall on Tuesday, (16/4).
The man born in Boyolali 60 years ago said that adolescent and fertile groups would experience sexual and reproduction revolution in the second transition. Siswanto said such revolution has taken place in some major cities of Indonesia as people were trying to emulate sexual behaviour from the western culture. In his opinion, it would be more difficult for public institutions and society to control sexual and reproductive behaviour amidst globalisation due to the mass use of electronic communication technology. “Teenagers, therefore, need to be advised in understanding the use and misuse of contraceptives,” he said.
He said that the circulation of emergency contraceptives as well as medical abortion need to be controlled and scrutinised to prevent even worse impacts. Contraceptive technology service and reproduction health that falls on non-professional people will jeopardise the future of adolescents. As happened to drug dependency control, a policy similar to harm reduction needs to be in place for reproduction health drugs. This aims at sexual and reproduction rights of people with high risk behaviour not being ignored, even protected. “Everyone, therefore, needs to understand the direction of contraceptive technology development and its effects during the second demographic transition,” he said.
The transition will also give double implications on public health doctors. First, doctors have to deal with change of aging population structure in Indonesia; second, they have to deal with sexual and reproductive revolution among a very great number of adolescents and adults. Adolescent and adult groups, particularly women, outnumber others. In 2010 the population of fertile women was 67.4 million. In 2020 it will reach up to 71.2 million and culminate to 72.1 in 2027.