Modernization of post mid-XIX century has formed a pluralistic Surakarta society with a reflective culture. Canonization of the colonial culture later emerged in the early twentieth century. It was characterized by the formation of uniformity of lifestyle, language, reorganization in the field of justice, the search for cultural identity to the achievement of cultural existence, especially for the Javanese community in Surakarta.
Susanto, lecturer of History, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Sebelas Maret in Surakarta, Central Java, said that different form of a new culture was not necessarily accepted by some supporters of the old Surakarta society, especially the elements of Indo and Java. Canonization was considered as an effort to eliminate their identity. This raised resistance to government policy in the form Insulinde movement and Javanese Nationalism.
“This movement was very elitist. Therefore, we could say that their movement was a form of new lifestyle to get their identity back,” he said, Friday (15/1), in his open examination of doctoral program at the Faculty of Cultural Sciences UGM.
Defended his dissertation entitled Lifestyle, Identity, and Community and Surakarta Culture Existence 1871-1940, Susanto explained that the Insulinde movement which represents a group of Indo people in Surakarta fought the hardest under the command of Douwes Dekker, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Dezentje, and Mare Vogel. Furthermore, in its development, this movement was not only harmful to the Dutch East Indies government, but also the native ruling elite in Surakarta, especially Susuhunan Paku Buwana X and Pangeran Adipati Mangkunagara VII.
“This movement made Surakarta the center of conflict in the Dutch East Indies. But on the other hand, the Insulinde movement also tried to remove feudal power in Surakarta,” he explained.
This movement ended during the Solo Attack on May 29, 1920. The Solo Attack had reshaped Surakarta society. Since then, Surakarta had re-established old ties between the European and Javanese elites. Furthermore, the emergence of malaise and Zelbestuursregelen made Surakarta to be a form of a new compound socio-cultural order with Surakarta Javanese cultural identity that stands out even further.