The concept of substance is an important finding in ontology. As a philosopher, Aristotle clearly described the concept of substance in the origin language, which is ousia, and formulates the meaning of substance as primary concept.
“It is independent in nature, free from and underlying other existence,” said Hastho Bramantyo at Faculty of Philosophy UGM on Wednesday (12/4) in his doctoral promotion.
Defending his dissertation titled Criticism to Aristotle’s Concept of Substance Based on Critical Thinking of Nagarjuna: Contribution to Human Liberation from Suffering, Hastho said Nagarjuna criticises the concept of substance that is revealed by Aristotle as incoherent with existing realities. Inherently, the concept will fall apart if examined critically and actually contradicting the realities that are dynamic and relative-relational.
“Nagarjuna’s criticism to the concept of substance leads to the thinking that is non-substantial, critical, relational, metapraxis and therapeutic that is combined in the nihilism concept so that it can be used to liberate human from suffering,” said Hastho, lecturer at Buddhism Academy (STAB) of Syailendra, in Semarang, Central Java.
The therapeutic contribution from nihilism concept, according to Hastho Bramantyo, is the abandonment of the substantial outlook or svabhava that allows the interdependent existence and enables spiritual praxis to reach the end of suffering. One that wants to learn and practise meditation to realise nihilism, will eventually be liberated from the trap of attachment to any views.
“So they can achieve liberation. Nihilism also affirms the cause and effect laws or karma so that the practice of merit gathering is possible. All in its turn will bring human closer to the peak of spiritual way, which is wisdom to go through nihilism, liberated from substantialistic outlook, and reach nirvana that is the end of all dukkha or suffering,” said Hastho, accompanied by his promoter, Prof. Joko Siswanto, and co-promoter Dr. Ali Muhofir.