Political development in the last ten years was very different from before. Since the resignation of President Soeharto in 1998, the political process has no longer gone unnoticed and hidden but competitive and open. Legal guarantee to express oneself and join mass organizations has produced independent mass media and NGOs that can analyze the state well.
That was delivered by Prof. Dr. Pratikno, M.Soc.Sc. when inaugurated as professor of Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Monday (21/12), at UGM Senate Hall.In his speech entitled â€œReconsolidation of Indonesia’s Reform: Political Study and Governmentâ€™s Contribution in Supporting Democracy and Effective Governmentâ€, Pratikno said that the emergence of new political parties can not be avoided. The big number of new parties caused the General Election Commission to select political party candidates.
â€œNot only political party can compete, but an individual candidate also gets opportunity in regional elections. Meanwhile, President and Governors are directly elected by people instead of Peopleâ€™s Consultative Assembly and Regional House of Representatives. This makes elections more competitive in the entire levels of government from village, regency/municipality, province and the state,â€ explained the man born in Bojonegoro in 1962.
According to the husband of Dra. Ec. Siti Faridah, public involvement in political process is not only found in the general election but also in daily decision making. In economic system that is more liberated and globalised, market players are significantly enforced. Moreover, the beginning of democratization in Indonesia took place at the same time when economic crisis struck, making the government rely on aids from big nations and foreign investors.
Pratikno explained that this political process is also opened for civilians, particularly through mediation of civil organizations and mass media. As what has happened recently, the role of civil society organizations and mass media is very important in supporting the Corruption Eradication Commission to deal with the National Police and Prosecutor’s Office.
The amendment of the State Constitution has indeed made the hierarchical pattern between state institutions more horizontal. The Peopleâ€™s Consultative Assembly is no longer placed as the highest state institution, but equal with the House of Representatives, the President and the Supreme Court. It does not any longer formulate the GBHN (Outlines of State Policy) to be implemented by the President.
In Pratiknoâ€™s view, horizontality is not only for institutional relation, but also for dispersion of governmentâ€™s authority. Besides the House of Representatives, Regional Representative Assembly is also formed. This institution is also voted by the people although its authority is far more limited than that of the House of Representatives.