Yohanes Djarot Purbadi, MT, Atmajaya University’s lecturer in Faculty of Engineering, said the Dawan tribal settlements architecture in Kenbaun Village, Nusa Tenggara, contains a unique intangible elements. Existence of God (Uis Neno) and ancestors (Bei-nai) is highly respected. It can be seen in the spatial layout of Kaenbaun settlements architecture. "The uniqueness is born from the heart of the cultural community that blend Kaenbaun local beliefs elements with Catholicism, thus the existence of tribal houses, the Catholic church, and sacred stones become an important spiritual point at Kaenbaun residential architecture," he explained.
Yohanes explained that the spatial layout of Kaenbaun architectural settlement is based on tribal orders which was declared by the early generations, in example about the relationship rules between tribal groups of men (lian mone) and women (lian Feto). Tribe order has become the sacred and lifelong foundation in the lives of the Dawan tribe, developed into a local indigenous cognition guide and spatial behavior guide in Kaenbaun community. "The implication is cognitions about tribe orders and various tribeâ€™s guidelines that were descended are underlying spatial system of Kaenbaun residential architecture," he explained in a doctoral promotion open examination conducted at the Grha Sabha Pramana at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Thursday (8/4).
The architectural spatial system in Kaenbaun is based on four distinct local values, such as, the value of ethno-spiritual, spiritual-cultural, cultural-ecological, and ethno-ecological. The four values live and flourish in the Kenbaun community life. These values are colored and coloring Kaenbaun culture which is based on the existence of faotkana (sacred stone), oekana (sacred spring), umesuku (traditional house), and the Catholic Church.
Yohanes added, tribal order in Kaenbaun also regulates the structural relationship of the tribes, especially the male tribal relations. In Kaenbaun community cognition, tribal relations are relations of brotherhood, butÂ are set hierarchically. The implication is, continued Yohanes, the tribal king (basan) is located in the middle of the circle as the central point is an important point and is supported by four other tribes, namely Timo, Taus, Foni, and Nel, in the four compass points.
Some implications are materialized in the spatial system of Kenbaun settlements, such as, tribal house order in the Kaenbaun village center, the presence of the sacred stone in Kaenbaun tribe, the spatial pattern of the front-middle-back, the spatial perception of old village and young village, the old village and the new village, the outside village and the inside village. Moreover, the presence of Taksoen area which has a role as receiving field near the village gate, the honor of village leader whose tomb is placed in the east area of the village, and the presence "door of both worlds" which marks the relation of human and spirits worlds.
Disclosed by the man born in Yogyakarta, June 16, 1957, that the results of his research entitled "Tribal Orders and Dawan Tribe’s Settlement Architectural Spatial System of Kaenbaun Village on the Island of Timor" proved that the theory of spatial system is supported by four specific concepts, such as the concept of tribal brotherhood, unity of ancestor and church, the concept of cultural diversity in unity, and concepts to blend with nature. "These four concepts are rooted in one important concept about life, which is the ideal life for Kaenbaun people that is united with God, ancestors, brothers, and the universe."