Husband to wife violence during pregnancy and childbed periods increase from year to year. The forms of violence often experienced by women such as physical, psychological, sexual, and economic violence, have an impact on their reproductive health.
Rosmala Nur, S.Pd., M.Si., lecturer in Region IX Private Universies Association assigned to University of Muhammadiyah Palu, mentioned that the unfulfilled needs of husband during the wife’s pregnancy and childbed period are the main cause that affect the husband to commit acts of violence. "In this period, the wife’s physical and psychological condition as well as sexual is weak and is unable to meet the needs and desires of her husband to the fullest. No compromise between the husband and the physically weak wife is very potential to cause violence," Rosmala said during her doctorate promotional exam in Population study program on Friday (24/9) at the Graduate School of UGM.
Rosmala mentioned that the wife inability in fulfilling her husband’s needs is a form of expressive sense of the domination of husband against wife. Violence as a result of dominative structure and husband-wife imbalanced relationship start from the societal to the individual level. "Most women just blindly accept the unfair treatment from their husbands. The wife resistance is needed to show their bargaining power in which women should begin to question the validity of the image and reality that are built for her, including on reproductive health," explained the woman born in Singa, 1 July 1972.
Conveyed by Rosamala while defending her dissertation entitled Husband to Wife Violence in the Period of Pregnancy and Childbed and Its Impact on Reproductive Health of Women in Two Villages of Donggala region, Central Sulawesi, the violence experienced during pregnancy and childbed cause different effects on women’s reproductive health. The differences are related to socio-demographic background concerning age, educational level, number of children, and house. Each wife has different socio-demographic characteristics, thus the level of impact vulnerability are different on each individual.
The wife of Drs. Muh Rusydi H., M.Si., said her results of research conducted in the Sunju Village and Tanjung Batu, Donggala Region, Central Sulawesi, showed that wives susceptible to complications of pregnancy are those over the age of 35 years, less educated, having many children and living in the countryside. Meanwhile, wives that are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies are those who are older, highly educated, and residing in urban areas.
"Although the prevalence of violence experienced is small, but the risk for impact exposure is significant because they are the most vulnerable groups to be affected by violence," she explained.
According to Rosmala, the response pattern of violence against pregnant women and women after childbirth through local wisdom called ‘pabisara ada” in both areas is an alternative choice needed by the victims. Besides, the place is accessible because it is in the village itself, in this case the woman is not burdened to pay the legal costs after reporting. Settlement through “pabisara ada” is also relatively faster up to 24 hours after being reported to “pabisara ada” traditional council. "Despite the shortcomings, but “pabisara ada” offers fast, cheap, and accessible service to all of the villagers. Such service has not been found in other services,"Rosmala explained.
Rosmala added that the handling pattern of acts of violence should consider the causes of violence at every level, whether civic, community, family, or individual. At the societal level, there should be a review of the law, whether marriage law, criminal or civil laws. This needs to be done to give more attention to the needs of husbands and wives equally. At the community level, the capacity and the economic empowerment of women need to be strengthened. While at the micro level, it takes a social action program to increase knowledge and understanding of perpetrators of violence. "The substances of socialization include the role of husband, care for pregnant and childbed women, gender-based violence, and the impact of violence on pregnancy and childbed on the health of mothers and babies," said the UGM’s 1267th doctoral graduate who passed cum laude.