Tuberculosis today remains one of serious global health problem, especially for the people living in developing countries. Tuberculosis remains a major cause of death associated with a single infection. It is said that 95% of tuberculosis occurs in developing countries with weak economic conditions and the remaining 5% in industrialized countries. More than 80% of tuberculosis in developing countries attack the productive age population, while in developed countries it reaches 20%.
According to Prof. Dr. drh. Ida Tjahajati, MP, tuberculosis remains a major problem in Indonesia. WHO recorded that Indonesia is the third highest country in the prevalence of tuberculosis after India and China. "Tuberculosis is the second largest cause of death after cardiovascular disease and the cause of death from infectious diseases group," Ida said at Senate Hall on Tuesday (8/3) when inaugurated as Professor in Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
As infectious disease, tuberculosis besides attacking humans, it also attacks a variety of farm animals, such as cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, and pet animals such as dogs and cats. In a speech "Tuberculosis in the Cellular Immune Response of Pet and Alternative Development of Diagnosis", Ida explained tuberculosis in animals, such as dogs and cats, is a disease that is not easily diagnosed clinically. Various clinical symptoms of the disease at an early and middle stages cannot be clearly recognizable. "Although the disease progresses as active tuberculosis and has an open lesion, the disease still does not show specific clinical symptoms," she explained.
Ida said, various research efforts have been developed to find the specific antigen that can be used as a basis for diagnosis of tuberculosis. The invention of specific antigens of M. tuberculosis, ie ESAT-6 and CFP-10 gene encoded by RD-1 and RD-2, opens opportunities to create a specific method of diagnosis of tuberculosis.