Superior’s behavior in decision-making process, both instrumental and non instrumental, became information on fairness for subordinates. Judgement about superior's behavior affects the attitudes and behavior of subordinates. Superior’s respect to subordinates becomes important to make subordinates not only abiding by the formal rules, which is mandatory behavior, but also creating internal motivation to pay attention to the continuity of the group. This was stated by Monika Palupi Murniati, S.E, M.M, in an open examination of her doctoral program at UGM Faculty of Economics and Business in the auditorium of BRI.Fl.3, M. Si and doctoral programs,on Thursday (1/12). In the examination, Monika defended her dissertation entitled Group Engagement Model Testing in the Context of Budget Relaxation: Role of Accuracy and Bias Reduction.
"This internal motivation will encourage the formation of positive behavior of individuals," said Monika.
According to Monika, when we become a superior, does our behavior allow subordinates to have a fair judgment, which not only makes our subordinates proud about the group attribute but also creates internal motivation to consciously encourage the formation of positive behavior.
"So, when we become subordinates or members of a group, do we only use the attributes and positions in the group to obtain the identity?" Monika said.
In the test, Monika mentioned, two interesting findings in her research: first, the identity argument that is formed from individual experience of fairness in decision making, income distribution, and effect of respect on subordinates’ trust, reducing negative behavior, budget relaxation.
Second, superior have an important role to establish and maintain the identity of groups and individuals in the group. Accuracy treatment of decision-making procedures and the superior’s bias reduction behavior which is given to subject found out that subjects have different judgments of fairness on the same procedure with bias reduction behavior by a different superior.
"This means that though the group has a procedure that can provide accurate information, but the superior has biases in decision-making, then the subordinate has unfair judgments on a decision-making process," said the lecturer in the Faculty of Economics and Business of Unika Soegijapranata Semarang.
Monika further explained that the theory of identity in the model group engagement predicts the role of identity judgments in shaping positive attitudes and behaviors of individuals. The group has a good function when it is able to provide a positive identity for its members. The desire to keep a positive identity encourages individuals to survive to be a member in the group with a status that can be derived from the attributes that are owned by the group and its position within the group.
From her research Monika also considered that individual judgments toward identity that are received show how much an individual identifies himself with the group. The more important a group function, the higher level identification is. Support for the identity theory is shown by the finding that judgments of procedural justice and fair distribution of justice have an indirect relationship with subordinates’ trust to superiors.
Another interesting thing in the study is that the argument of importance of procedural justice judgments above fairness of income distribution is supported by the findings of the research. Respect that is received indicates the subordinate status in the group, which makes subordinates feel to have value. This becomes subordinate’s internal motivation to voluntarily identify themselves with the group. In this condition, the individual will make the purpose of the group into individual goal, so behavior that is harmful to the group will decline.
"These findings provide evidence of significant differences in budget relaxation in the group who receive the respect and the group who receive no respect," said Monika.
In the doctoral exam, Monika was finally declared graduating with honors. Present as examiner team in the doctoral examination are Prof. Marwan Asri, MBA, Ph.D., Prof. Dr. Zaki Baridwan, M.Sc., Dr. Supriyadi, M.Sc., Prof. Dr. Jogiyanto HM, MBA., Dr.Sony Warsono, MAFIS., Dr. . Dody Hapsoro, MBA., and Dr. Goedono, MBA.