The risk factor for prostate cancer apart from cadmium (Cd) is genetic factor. One of the agents predicted to correspond to prostate cancer is PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) gene in chromosom 19.
Meanwhile, smoking poses another factor to prostate cancer. Researches showed the relations between smoking and several types of tumor. The relation between smoking and prostate cancer, however, is still debatable.
"Cigarette contains plenty of carcinogenic including N-nitroso that is known as carcinogen in animal. Cigarette also contains Cd as risk factor for prostate cancer," said dr. Nendyah Roestijawati, M.K.K., in her open doctoral examination at Faculty of Medicine of Universitas Gadjah Mada on Wednesday (3/2).
The Medicine Faculty lecturer from Universitas Jenderal Soedirman Purwokerto in Central Java defended her dissertation entitled Relations between Blood Cadmium Level and Prostate Carcinogenesis. She is accompanied by her promoter, Prof. Drs. Sugiyanto, SU., Apt., Ph.D, and co-promoter, Dr. dr. Lientje Setyawati Maurits, MS., Sp.Ok.
Nendyah expained that each cigarette contains + 1,5-2,0 µg Cd with as high as 70 percent will be released to the air through the smoke being exhaled. A heavy smoker who smokes one pack of cigarettes each day will have the risk up to 24 - 30 percent bigger than non-smokers for fatality due to prostate cancer.
Nendyah assessed that the relation between smoking and prostate cancer can be explained in terms of hormones. A man who has androsterone and testoterone levels higher may increase the prostate cancer.
"So is the case for workers at welding, they have the risk of being exposed to Cd,” said the lady born in Purwokerto, 10 November 1970.
The Cd level in the air for welding industry, according to Nendyah, depends on the metal filler for the welding, welding technique, and work space condition. It is indicated that cadmium is present in dusty environment or metal fumes.
Nevertheless, the high level of blood Cd that relates to PSA anc IGF-1 (Insulin Growth Factor-1) levels can be prevented by technical control and administrative control.
"Welding process ought to be done in a closed room with local exhaust ventilation to reduce fume level due to the welding. Workers may also have their Cd level checked regularly,” said Nendyah.